ELECTRONIC PROPULSION:

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ELECTRONIC PROPULSION:

Postby Bruce Patrick Brychek » Mon Mar 23, 2020 10:00 pm

Monday
03.23.2020
5:00 p.m.,
Chicago, Illinois time:

Dear JFK Murder Solved Forum Members and Readers:

BEST REGARDS TO EVERYBODY.

The ideas and research of Electric Propulsion dates to at least the year of 1911.

Others date it to Ancient Egypt and the purpose of at least some of the Pyramids.

In the 1930's the Nazis were already working on Electronic Propulsion.

The German's lost WW II.

THE NAZIS WON WW II.

OPERATON PAPERCLIP brought over to the U.S. from Germany after WW II 1,600 of the Nazis Best
Doctors, Military, and Scientists, including the Nazi Rocket Genius Werhner von Braun..

Von Braun was give the keys to the Newly Created U.S. NASA. Von Braun's V-1 and V-2 Rockets that
rained down on London and other parts of England killing thousands and leveling tens of thousands
of homes was INSTANTLY FORGOTTEN.

In addition, if you research this well, you will discover that over 2,000+ Nazis came to America
with New Identities, Cars, Homes, Jobs, Money, and Real Estate.

Even more surprising is that more than half of the Nazis Convicted in The Nuremberg War Trials
were granted Full Pardons and also brought to work for the U.S. Government, and/or Intelligence
Communities, and/or Military.

In 1945 JFK was Extremely Close Confidentially with two (2) of The Original Members of The Original
Majestic Twelve, Secretary of the Navy, and MJ-1, James V. Forrestal, and Dr. Donald J. Menzel, both
of whom had deep ties to both Harvard University and John F. Kennedy.

In 1945 JFK toured Nazi Germany with James V. Forrestal

JFK was learning all about the Nazis, Nazis Science and Space Exploration, Operation Paperclip, and
so much more.

Also, study OPERATION HIGH JUMP in the Antarctic. This was a U.S. Secret Program where we has our
butts kicked by the Nazis. Of course it's buried.

Furthermore, study JFK's Top Secret Negotiations with Russian Premiere Nikita Khrushchev. This is
really buried.

Has anybody developed any Analyses, Readings, Research, Study, and/or Writings about any aspect
of the above ?

As always, I strongly recommend that you first read, research, and study material completely yourself
about a Subject Matter, and then formulate your own Opinions and Theories.

Any additional analyses, interviews, investigations, readings, research, studies, thoughts, or writings
on any aspect of this Subject Matter ?

Bear in mind that we are trying to attract and educate a Whole New Generation of JFK Researchers
who may not be as well versed as you.

Comments ?

Respectfully,
BB.

ELECTRICALLY POWERED SPACECRAFT PROPULSION.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

6 kW Hall thruster in operation at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory.

An electrically-powered spacecraft propulsion system uses electrical, and possibly also magnetic
fields, to change the velocity of a spacecraft. Most of these kinds of spacecraft propulsion systems
work by electrically expelling propellant (reaction mass) at high speed.[1]

Electric thrusters typically use much less propellant than chemical rockets because they have a higher
exhaust speed (operate at a higher specific impulse) than chemical rockets.[2] Due to limited electric
power the thrust is much weaker compared to chemical rockets, but electric propulsion can provide a
small thrust for a long duration of time.[3] Electric propulsion can achieve high speeds over long periods
and thus can work better than chemical rockets for some deep space missions.[2]

Electric propulsion is now a mature and widely used technology on spacecraft. Russian satellites have
used electric propulsion for decades[4] and it is predicted that by 2020, half of all new satellites will carry
full electric propulsion.[5] As of 2019, over 500 spacecraft operated throughout the Solar System use electric
propulsion for station keeping, orbit raising, or primary propulsion.[6] In the future, the most advanced
electric thrusters may be able to impart a Delta-v of 100 km/s, which is enough to take a spacecraft to the
outer planets of the Solar System (with nuclear power), but is insufficient for interstellar travel.[2][7] An
electric rocket with an external power source (transmissible through laser on the photovoltaic panels) has a
theoretical possibility for interstellar flight.[8][9] However, electric propulsion is not a method suitable for
launches from the Earth's surface, as the thrust for such systems is too weak.

Contents
1
History
2
Types
2.1
Ion and plasma drives
2.1.1
Electrostatic
2.1.2
Electrothermal
2.1.3
Electromagnetic
2.2
Non-ion drives
2.2.1
Photonic
2.2.2
Electrodynamic tether
2.2.3
Controversial
2.3
Steady vs. unsteady
3
Dynamic properties
4
See also
5
References
6
External links History

The idea of electric propulsion for spacecraft dates back to 1911, introduced in a publication by
Konstantin Tsiolkovsky.[10] Earlier, Robert Goddard had noted such a possibility in his personal
notebook.[11]

Electrically-powered propulsion with a nuclear reactor was considered by Dr. Tony Martin for
interstellar Project Daedalus in 1973, but the novel approach was rejected because of very low
thrust, the heavy equipment needed to convert nuclear energy into electricity, and as a result a
small acceleration, which would take a century to achieve the desired speed.[12]

The demonstration of electric propulsion was an ion engine carried on board the SERT-1 (Space
Electric Rocket Test) spacecraft,[13][14] launched on 20 July 1964 and it operated for 31 minutes.[13]

A follow-up mission launched on 3 February 1970, SERT-2, carried two ion thrusters, one operated for
more than five months and the other for almost three months.[13][15][16]

By the early 2010s, many satellite manufacturers were offering electric propulsion options on their
satellites—mostly for on-orbit attitude control—while some commercial communication satellite
operators were beginning to use them for geosynchronous orbit insertion in place of traditional chemical
rocket engines.[17]

Types.
Ion and plasma drives.

This type of rocket-like reaction engine uses electric energy to obtain thrust from propellant carried with
the vehicle. Unlike rocket engines, these kinds of engines do not necessarily have rocket nozzles, and
thus many types are not considered true rockets.[citation needed]

Electric propulsion thrusters for spacecraft may be grouped into three families based on the type of force
used to accelerate the ions of the plasma:

Electrostatic

Main article: Ion thruster

If the acceleration is caused mainly by the Coulomb force (i.e. application of a static electric field in the
direction of the acceleration) the device is considered electrostatic.
• Gridded ion thruster
◦ NASA Solar Technology Application Readiness (NSTAR)
◦ HiPEP
◦ Radiofrequency ion thruster
• Hall effect thruster
◦ SPT – Stationary Plasma Thruster
◦ TAL – Thruster with Anode Layer
• Colloid ion thruster
• Field Emission Electric Propulsion
• Nano-particle field extraction thruster

Electrothermal.

The electrothermal category groups the devices where electromagnetic fields are used to generate a plasma
to increase the temperature of the bulk propellant. The thermal energy imparted to the propellant gas is
then converted into kinetic energy by a nozzle of either solid material or magnetic fields. Low molecular
weight gases (e.g. hydrogen, helium, ammonia) are preferred propellants for this kind of system.
An electrothermal engine uses a nozzle to convert the heat of a gas into linear motion in its molecules, so it
is a true rocket even though the energy producing the heat comes from an external source.
Performance of electrothermal systems in terms of specific impulse (Isp) is somewhat modest (500 to ~1000
seconds), but exceeds that of cold gas thrusters, monopropellant rockets, and even most bipropellant rockets.
In the USSR, electrothermal engines were used since 1971; the Soviet "Meteor-3", "Meteor-Priroda", "Resurs-O"
satellite series and the Russian "Elektro" satellite are equipped with them.[18] Electrothermal systems by Aerojet
(MR-510) are currently used on Lockheed Martin A2100 satellites using hydrazine as a propellant.
• Arcjet
• Microwave arcjet
• Resistojet
• Variable specific impulse magnetoplasma rocket (VASIMR)
Electromagnetic[edit]
Main article: Plasma propulsion engine
If ions are accelerated either by the Lorentz force or by the effect of electromagnetic fields where the electric
field is not in the direction of the acceleration, the device is considered electromagnetic.
• Electrodeless plasma thruster
• Magnetoplasmadynamic thruster
• Pulsed inductive thruster
• Pulsed plasma thruster
• Helicon Double Layer Thruster
Non-ion drives[edit]
Photonic[edit]
Photonic drive does not expel matter for reaction thrust, only photons. See Laser propulsion, Photonic Laser
Thruster, Photon rocket.
Electrodynamic tether[edit]
Main article: Electrodynamic tether
Electrodynamic tethers are long conducting wires, such as one deployed from a tether satellite, which can
operate on electromagnetic principles as generators, by converting their kinetic energy to electric energy,
or as motors, converting electric energy to kinetic energy.[19] Electric potential is generated across a
conductive tether by its motion through the Earth's magnetic field. The choice of the metal conductor to
be used in an electrodynamic tether is determined by a variety of factors. Primary factors usually include
high electrical conductivity, and low density. Secondary factors, depending on the application, include cost,
strength, and melting point.

Controversial.

A number of propulsion methods have been proposed, where it is unclear that they can work according to
the currently-understood laws of physics, including:[20]

• Quantum Vacuum Plasma Thruster
• EM Drive or Cannae Drive

Steady vs. unsteady.

Electric propulsion systems can also be characterized as either steady (continuous firing for a prescribed
duration) or unsteady (pulsed firings accumulating to a desired impulse). However, these classifications
are not unique to electric propulsion systems and can be applied to all types of propulsion engines.

Dynamic properties.

Further information: Reaction engine § Energy use
Electrically-powered rocket engines provide lower thrust compared to chemical rockets by several orders
of magnitude because of the limited electrical power possible to provide in a spacecraft.[3] A chemical
rocket imparts energy to the combustion products directly, whereas an electrical system requires several
steps. However, the high velocity and lower reaction mass expended for the same thrust allows electric
rockets to run for a long time. This differs from the typical chemical-powered spacecraft, where the
engines run only in short intervals of time, while the spacecraft mostly follows an inertial trajectory. When
near a planet, low-thrust propulsion may not offset the gravitational attraction of the planet. An electric
rocket engine cannot provide enough thrust to lift the vehicle from a planet's surface, but a low thrust
applied for a long interval can allow a spacecraft to maneuver near a planet.

See also.

• Magnetic sail, a proposed system powered by solar wind from the Sun or any star
• List of spacecraft with electric propulsion, a list of past and proposed spacecraft which used
electric propulsion
References[edit]
1 ^ Mazouffre, Stéphane (1 June 2016). "Electric propulsion for satellites and spacecraft:
established technologies and novel approaches". Plasma Sources Science and Technology. 25 (3):
033002. doi:10.1088/0963-0252/25/3/033002. ISSN 0963-0252.
2 ^ Jump up to: 
a b c Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2009) New dawn of electric rocket Scientific American
300, 58–65 doi:10.1038/scientificamerican0209-58
3 ^ Jump up to: 
a b "Electric versus Chemical Propulsion". Electric Spacecraft Propulsion. ESA. R
etrieved 17 February 2007.
4 ^ Electric Propulsion Research at Institute of Fundamental Technological Research
5 ^ Beyond Frontiers Broadgate Publications (September 2016) pp20
6 ^ Lev, Dan; Myers, Roger M.; Lemmer, Kristina M.; Kolbeck, Jonathan; Koizumi, Hiroyuki; Polzin,
Kurt (June 2019). "The technological and commercial expansion of electric propulsion". Acta Astronautica.
159: 213–227. doi:10.1016/j.actaastro.2019.03.058.
7 ^ Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2009). New dawn of electric rocket
8 ^ Laser-Powered Interstellar Probe G Landis - APS Bulletin, 1991
9 ^ Geoffrey A. Landis. Laser-powered Interstellar Probe Archived 22 July 2012 at the Wayback
Machine on the Geoffrey A. Landis: Science. papers available on the web
10 ^ Palaszewski, Bryan. "Electric Propulsion for Future Space Missions (PowerPoint)". Electric
Propulsion for Future Space Missions. NASA Glenn Research Center. Retrieved 31 December 2011.
11 ^ Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2004). "A Critical History of Electric Propulsion: The First 50 Years (1906–1956)".
Journal of Propulsion and Power. 20 (2): 193–203. CiteSeerX 10.1.1.573.8519. doi:10.2514/1.9245.
12 ^ PROJECT DAEDALUS: THE PROPULSION SYSTEM Part 1; Theoretical considerations and calculations.
2. REVIEW OF ADVANCED PROPULSION SYSTEMS Archived 28 June 2013 at the Wayback Machine
13 ^ Jump up to: 
a b c NASA Glenn Contributions to Deep Space 1
14 ^ Ronald J. Cybulski, Daniel M. Shellhammer, Robert R. LoveII, Edward J. Domino, and Joseph T. Kotnik,
RESULTS FROM SERT I ION ROCKET FLIGHT TEST, NASA Technical Note D2718 (1965).
15 ^ NASA Glenn, "SPACE ELECTRIC ROCKET TEST II (SERT II)" Archived 27 September 2011 at the Wayback
Machine (Accessed 1 July 2010)
16 ^ SERT Archived 25 October 2010 at the Wayback Machine page at Astronautix (Accessed 1 July 2010)
17 ^ de Selding, Peter B. (20 June 2013). "Electric-propulsion Satellites Are All the Rage". SpaceNews.
Retrieved 6 February 2015.
18 ^ "Native Electric Propulsion Engines Today" (in Russian). Novosti Kosmonavtiki. 1999. Archived from the
original on 6 June 2011.
19 ^ NASA, Tethers In Space Handbook, edited by M.L. Cosmo and E.C. Lorenzini, Third Edition December
1997 (accessed 20 October 2010); see also version at NASA MSFC; available on scribd
20 ^ "Why Shawyer's 'electromagnetic relativity drive' is a fraud" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF)
on 25 August 2014.
• Aerospace America, AIAA publication, December 2005, Propulsion and Energy section, pp. 54–55, written
by Mitchell Walker.
External links[edit]
• NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory
• The technological and commercial expansion of electric propulsion - D. Lev et al. [1]
• Electric (Ion) Propulsion, University Center for Atmospheric Research, University of Colorado at Boulder,
2000.
• Distributed Power Architecture for Electric Propulsion
• Choueiri, Edgar Y. (2009). New dawn of electric rocket
• Robert G. Jahn and Edgar Y. Choueiri. Electric Propulsion
• Colorado State University Electric Propulsion and Plasma Engineering (CEPPE) Laboratory
• Stationary plasma thrusters(PDF)
https://web.archive.org/web/20090530080 ... lopedia/E/
electricprop.html
• [2]
• A Critical History of Electric Propulsion:The First Fifty Years(1906-1956) - AIAA-2004-3334
show
• vte
Spacecraft propulsion
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Categories: Russian inventionsSoviet inventionsSpacecraft propulsionElectric motorsSpaceflight
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Bruce Patrick Brychek
 
Posts: 2565
Joined: Sat May 26, 2007 9:09 am

Re: ELECTRONIC PROPULSION:

Postby kenmurray » Mon Mar 23, 2020 10:43 pm

kenmurray
 
Posts: 5205
Joined: Mon May 04, 2009 8:55 pm


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