ANTARTIC TREATY SYSTEM:

Knowing the truth about the Kennedy Assassination is understanding America today.

Moderators: Bob, Phil Dragoo, Dealey Joe, kenmurray, dankbaar

ANTARTIC TREATY SYSTEM:

Postby Bruce Patrick Brychek » Sat Mar 07, 2020 8:31 pm

Saturday
03.07.2020
2:31 p.m.,
Chicago, Illinois time:

Dear JFK Murder Solved Forum Members and Readers:

BEST REGARDS TO EVERYBODY.

I have long read and studied about Operation High Jump and as many related aspects to this Subject
Matter that I could access.

Recently watching Mr. Ken Murray's Posts and Contributions about Mr. Jim Marrs, Marrs strongly
references the Antartic and Operation High Jump in both his books and seminars.

Has anybody done any research on any aspect of this Subject Matter ?

As always, I strongly recommend that you first read, research, and study material completely yourself
about a Subject Matter, and then formulate your own Opinions and Theories.

Any additional analyses, interviews, investigations, readings, research, studies, thoughts, or writings
on any aspect of this Subject Matter ?

Bear in mind that we are trying to attract and educate a Whole New Generation of JFK Researchers
who may not be as well versed as you.

Comments ?

Respectfully,
BB.



Antarctic Treaty System
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

The Antarctic Treaty
French: Traité sur l'Antarctique
Russian: Договор об Антарктике
Spanish: Tratado Antártico

Flag of the Antarctic Treaty
Signed
December 1, 1959[1]
Location
Washington, D.C., United States
Effective
June 23, 1961

Ratification of all 12 signatories
Signatories
12[2]
Parties
54[2]
Depositary
Federal government of the United States[2]
Languages
English, French, Russian, and Spanish Antarctic Treaty at Wikisource

A satellite composite image of Antarctica.

The Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, collectively known as the Antarctic Treaty System (ATS), regulate international relations with respect to Antarctica, Earth's only continent without a native human population. For the purposes of the treaty system, Antarctica is defined as all of the land and ice shelves south of 60°S latitude. The treaty entered into force in 1961 and currently has 54 parties.[2] The treaty sets aside Antarctica as a scientific preserve, establishes freedom of scientific investigation, and bans military activity on the continent. The treaty was the first arms control agreement established during the Cold War. Since September 2004, the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat headquarters has been located in Buenos Aires, Argentina.[3]
International ownership treaties

• Antarctic Treaty System Law of the Sea Outer Space Treaty Moon Treaty International waters
• vte
The main treaty was opened for signature on December 1, 1959, and officially entered into force on June 23, 1961.[4] The original signatories were the 12 countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year (IGY) of 1957–58. The twelve countries that had significant interests in Antarctica at the time were: Argentina, Australia, Belgium, Chile, France, Japan, New Zealand, Norway, South Africa, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and the United States.[1] These countries had established over 55 Antarctic stations for the IGY. The treaty was a diplomatic expression of the operational and scientific co-operation that had been achieved "on the ice".

Contents
1
History
1.1
International conflicts
1.2
Previous agreements
1.3
International Geophysical Year
1.4
Negotiation of the treaty
2
Articles of the Antarctic Treaty
2.1
Article I
2.2
Article II
2.3
Article III
2.4
Article IV
2.5
Article V
2.6
Article VI
2.7
Article VII
2.8
Article VIII
2.9
Article IX
2.10
Article X
2.11
Article XI
2.12
Articles XII, XIII, XIV
3
Other agreements
4
Bilateral treaties
5
Meetings
6
Parties
7
Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
8
Legal system
8.1
Australia
8.2
United States
8.3
New Zealand
8.4
South Africa
9
See also
10
References
11
External linksHistory[edit]

International conflicts[edit]

Various international conflicts motivated the creation of an agreement for the Antarctic[5]. After the Second World War, the U.S. considered to establish a claim in Antartic. From August 26, 1946 and until the beginning of 1947, Operation Highjump was carried out, the largest military expeditionary force that the United States has sent to Antarctica to the present, consisting of 13 ships, 4700 men and numerous aerial devices[6]. His goals were to train military personnel and test material in conditions of extreme cold for an eventual war in the Arctic.
Some incidents had occurred during World War II, and a new one occurred in Hope Bay on February 1, 1952, when the Argentine military fired warning shots at a group of Britons. The response of the United Kingdom was to send a warship that landed marines on February 4th, at the scene[7]. This occurred; however, after 1949, Argentina, Chile, and the United Kingdom signed a Tripartite Naval Declaration committing not to send warships south of the 60th South parallel, which was renewed annually until 1961 when it was deemed unnecessary when the treaty entered into force. This tripartite declaration was signed after the tension generated when Argentina sent to Antarctica in February 1948 a fleet of 8 warships[8].

On January 17, 1953, Argentina reopened the Lieutenant Lasala refuge on Deception Island, leaving a sergeant and a corporal in the Argentine Navy. On February 15, in the incident on Deception Island, 32 royal marines landed from the British frigate HMS Snipe armed with Sten machine guns, rifles, and tear gas capturing the two Argentine sailors.10 The Argentine refuge and a nearby uninhabited Chilean shelter were destroyed, and the Argentine sailors were delivered to a ship from that country on February 18 in the South Georgias Islands. A British detachment remained three months on the island while the frigate patrolled its waters until April.

On May 4, 1955, the United Kingdom filed two lawsuits, against Argentina and Chile respectively, before the International Court of Justice to declare the invalidity of the claims of the sovereignty of the two countries over Antarctic and sub-Antarctic areas. On July 15, 1955, the Chilean Government rejected the jurisdiction of the Court in that case, and on August 1, the Argentine Government also did so, so on March 16, 1956 the claims were filed.[9]

Previous agreements[edit]

On September 2, 1947, the American quadrant of Antarctica (between 24 ° W and 90 ° W) was included as part of the security zone of the Inter-American Treaty of Reciprocal Assistance, committing its members to defend it in case of external aggression.

In August 1948, the United States proposed that Antarctica be under the guardianship of the United Nations as a trust administered by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, United States, United Kingdom, and New Zealand. Still, the idea was rejected by Argentina, Australia, Chile, France, and Norway. Before the rejection, on August 28, 1948, the United States proposed to the claimants some form of internationalization of Antarctica, with the support of the United Kingdom. Chile responded by presenting a plan to suspend any Antarctic claim for 5 to 10 years while negotiating a final solution, which did not prosper. The interest of the United States to keep the Soviet Union away from Antarctica was frustrated when in 1950, this country informed the claimants that it would not accept any Antarctic agreement in which it was not represented. The fear that the USSR would react by doing a territorial claim transferring the Cold War to Antarctica led the United States to do none. In 1956 and 1958, India tried unsuccessfully to bring the Antarctic issue to the United Nations General Assembly.[6]

International Geophysical Year[edit
In 1950 the International Council of Scientific Unions (ICSU) discussed the possibility of holding a third International Polar Year. At the suggestion of the World Meteorological Organization, the idea of the International Polar Year was extended to the entire planet, thus creating the International Geophysical Year that took place between July 1, 1957, and December 31, 1958. In this event, 66 countries participated. At the ICSU meeting in Stockholm from September 9 to 11, 1957, the creation of a Special Committee for Antarctic Research (SCAR) was approved, inviting the twelve countries conducting Antarctic investigations to send delegates to integrate the committee, with the purpose of exchanging scientific information among its members regarding Antarctica. The SCAR was later renamed to the Scientific Committee for Research in Antarctica.

Both Argentina and Chile expressed that researching during the International Geophysical Year would not give any territorial rights to the participants and that the facilities that were erected during that year should then be dismantled at the end of it. After the United States proposed to extend the Antarctic investigations for another year, in February 1958, the Soviet Union reported that it would maintain its scientific bases until the studies that were carried out were completed.

Negotiation of the treaty[edit

Scientific bases increased in international tension concerning Antarctica, and the danger of the Cold War spreading to that continent, caused the President of the United States, Dwight D. Eisenhower, to convene an Antarctic Conference to the twelve countries active in Antarctica during the International Geophysical Year, to sign a treaty. In the first phase, representatives of the twelve nations met in Washington, who met in 60 sessions from June 1958 to October 1959, to define the basic negotiating framework. Still, no consensus was reached on a preliminary draft. In the second phase, a conference of the highest diplomatic level was held from October 15 to December 1, 1959, the date of the signing of the treaty. The central ideas with full acceptance were the freedom of scientific research in Antarctica and the peaceful use of the continent. Still, their demilitarization and the maintenance of the status quo also had consensus.

The positions of the United States, the Soviet Union, the United Kingdom, and New Zealand coincided in the establishment of an international administration for Antarctica, proposing the latter to be within the framework of the United Nations. Australia and the United Kingdom expressed the need for inspections by observers, and the second proposed the use of military means for logistics functions. Argentina proposed that all atomic explosions be banned in Antarctica, which caused a crisis that lasted until the eve of the firm, since the United States, along with other countries, intended to ban only those that were made without prior notice and without prior consultation The support of the USSR and Chile to the Argentine proposal finally caused the United States to retract its opposition.

The signing of the treaty was the first arms control agreement that occurred in the framework of the Cold War, and the complaining countries managed to avoid the internationalization of Antarctic sovereignty.

Articles of the Antarctic Treaty[edit]

Article I[edit]

1. Antarctica shall be used for peaceful purposes only. There shall be prohibited, inter alia, any measures of a military nature, such as the establishment of military bases and fortifications, the carrying out of military maneuvers, as well as the testing of any type of weapons.
2. The present treaty shall not prevent the use of military personnel or equipment for scientific research or for any other peaceful purposes.
Article II[edit]
Freedom of scientific investigation in Antarctica and cooperation toward that end, as applied during the International Geophysical Year, shall continue, subject to the provisions of the present treaty.
Article III[edit]
1. In order to promote international cooperation in scientific investigation in Antarctica, as provided for in Article II of the present treaty, the Contracting Parties agree that, to the greatest extent feasible and practicable:
(a) information regarding plans for scientific programs in Antarctica shall be exchanged to permit maximum economy and efficiency of operations;
(b) scientific personnel shall be exchanged in Antarctica between expeditions and stations;
(c) scientific observations and results from Antarctica shall be exchanged and made freely available.
2. In implementing this Article, every encouragement shall be given to the establishment of cooperative working relations with those Specialized Agencies of the United Nations and other international organizations having a scientific or technical interest in Antarctica.
Article IV[edit]
1. Nothing contained in the present treaty shall be interpreted as:
(a) a renunciation by any Contracting Party of previously asserted rights of or claims to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica;
(b) a renunciation or diminution by any Contracting Party of any basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica which it may have whether as a result of its activities or those of its nationals in Antarctica, or otherwise;
(c) prejudicing the position of any Contracting Party as regards its recognition or non-recognition of any other States right of or claim or basis of claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica.
2. No acts or activities taking place while the present treaty is in force shall constitute a basis for asserting, supporting or denying a claim to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica or create any rights of sovereignty in Antarctica. No new claim, or enlargement of an existing claim, to territorial sovereignty in Antarctica shall be asserted while the present treaty is in force.
Article V[edit]
1. Any nuclear explosions in Antarctica and the disposal there of radioactive waste material shall be prohibited.
2. In the event of the conclusion of international agreements concerning the use of nuclear energy, including nuclear explosions and the disposal of radioactive waste material, to which all of the Contracting Parties whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings provided for under Article IX are parties, the rules established under such agreements shall apply in Antarctica.
Article VI[edit]
The provisions of the present treaty shall apply to the area south of 60 degree South Latitude, including all ice shelves, but nothing in the present treaty shall prejudice or in any way affect the rights, or the exercise of the rights, of any State under international law with regard to the high seas within that area.
Article VII[edit]
1. In order to promote the objectives and ensure the observance of the provisions of the present treaty, each Contracting Party whose representatives are entitled to participate in the meetings referred to in Article IX of the treaty shall have the right to designate observers to carry out any inspection provided for by the present Article. Observers shall be nationals of the Contracting Parties which designate them. The names of observers shall be communicated to every other Contracting Party having the right to designate observers, and like notice shall be given of the termination of their appointment.
2. Each observer designated in accordance with the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article shall have complete freedom of access at any time to any or all areas of Antarctica.
3. All areas of Antarctica, including all stations, installations and equipment within those areas, and all ships and aircraft at points of discharging or embarking cargoes or personnel in Antarctica, shall be open at all times to inspection by any observers designated in accordance with paragraph 1 of this Article.
4. Aerial observation may be carried out at any time over any or all areas of Antarctica by any of the Contracting Parties having the right to designate observers.
5. Each Contracting Party shall, at the time when the present treaty enters into force for it, inform the other Contracting Parties, and thereafter shall give them notice in advance, of
(a) all expeditions to and within Antarctica, on the part of its ships or nationals, and all expeditions to Antarctica organized in or proceeding from its territory;
(b) all stations in Antarctica occupied by its nationals; and
(c) any military personnel or equipment intended to be introduced by it into Antarctica subject to the conditions prescribed in paragraph 2 of Article I of the present treaty.
Article VIII[edit]
1. In order to facilitate the exercise of their functions under the present treaty, and without prejudice to the respective positions of the Contracting Parties relating to jurisdiction over all other persons in Antarctica, observers designated under paragraph 1 of Article VII and scientific personnel exchanged under subparagraph 1(b) of Article III of the treaty, and members of the staffs accompanying any such persons, shall be subject only to the jurisdiction of the Contracting Party of which they are nationals in respect of all acts or omissions occurring while they are in Antarctica for the purpose of exercising their functions.
2. Without prejudice to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article, and pending the adoption of measures in pursuance of subparagraph 1(e) of Article IX, the Contracting Parties concerned in any case of dispute with regard to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica shall immediately consult together with a view to reaching a mutually acceptable solution.
Article IX[edit]
1. Representatives of the Contracting Parties named in the preamble to the present treaty shall meet at the City of Canberra within two months after the date of entry into force of the treaty, and thereafter at suitable intervals and places, for the purpose of exchanging information, consulting together on matters of common interest pertaining to Antarctica, and formulating and considering, and recommending to their Governments, measures in furtherance of the principles and objectives of the treaty, including measures regarding:
(a) use of Antarctica for peaceful purposes only;
(b) facilitation of scientific research in Antarctica;
(c) facilitation of international scientific cooperation in Antarctica;
(d) facilitation of the exercise of the rights of inspection provided for in Article VII of the treaty;
(e) questions relating to the exercise of jurisdiction in Antarctica;
(f) preservation and conservation of living resources in Antarctica.
2. Each Contracting Party which has become a party to the present treaty by accession under Article XIII shall be entitled to appoint representatives to participate in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article, during such time as that Contracting Party demonstrates its interest in Antarctica by conducting substantial scientific research activity there, such as the establishment of a scientific station or the despatch of a scientific expedition.
3. Reports from the observers referred to in Article VII of the present treaty shall be transmitted to the representatives of the Contracting Parties participating in the meetings referred to in paragraph 1 of the present Article.
4. The measures referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article shall become effective when approved by all the Contracting Parties whose representatives were entitled to participate in the meetings held to consider those measures.
5. Any or all of the rights established in the present treaty may be exercised from the date of entry into force of the treaty whether or not any measures facilitating the exercise of such rights have been proposed, considered or approved as provided in this Article.
Article X[edit]
Each of the Contracting Parties undertakes to exert appropriate efforts, consistent with the Charter of the United Nations, to the end that no one engages in any activity in Antarctica contrary to the principles or purposes of the present treaty.
Article XI[edit]
1. If any dispute arises between two or more of the Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present treaty, those Contracting Parties shall consult among themselves with a view to having the dispute resolved by negotiation, inquiry, mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement or other peaceful means of their own choice.
2. Any dispute of this character not so resolved shall, with the consent, in each case, of all parties to the dispute, be referred to the International Court of Justice for settlement; but failure to reach agreement on reference to the International Court shall not absolve parties to the dispute from the responsibility of continuing to seek to resolve it by any of the various peaceful means referred to in paragraph 1 of this Article.
Articles XII, XIII, XIV[edit]
Deals with upholding, interpreting, and amending the treaty among involved nations.[10]
The main objective of the ATS is to ensure in the interests of all humankind that Antarctica shall continue forever to be used exclusively for peaceful purposes and shall not become the scene or object of international discord. Pursuant to Article 1, the treaty forbids any measures of a military nature, but not the presence of military personnel or equipment for the purposes of scientific research.
Other agreements[edit]


Disposal of waste by simply dumping it at the shoreline such as here at the Russian Bellingshausen Station base on King George Island in 1992 is no longer permitted by the Protocol on Environmental Protection
Other agreements — some 200 recommendations adopted at treaty consultative meetings and ratified by governments — include:
• Agreed Measures for the Conservation of Antarctic Fauna and Flora (1964) (entered into force in 1982)
• The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Seals (1972)
• The Convention for the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources (1982)[11]
• The Convention on the Regulation of Antarctic Mineral Resource Activities (1988) (signed in 1988, not in force)
• The Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty was signed October 4, 1991, and entered into force January 14, 1998; this agreement prevents development and provides for the protection of the Antarctic environment through five specific annexes on marine pollution, fauna and flora, environmental impact assessments, waste management, and protected areas. It prohibits all activities relating to mineral resources except scientific. A sixth annex on liability arising from environmental emergencies  was adopted in 2005, but is yet to enter into force.
Bilateral treaties[edit]
• Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Governments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Government of the French Republic, regarding Aerial Navigation in the Antarctic (Paris, 25 October 1938)[12]
• Treaty Between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic on Cooperation in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories (TAAF), Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Canberra, 24 November 2003)[13]
• Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement of Fisheries Laws between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Paris, 8 January 2007)[14]
Meetings[edit]
The Antarctic Treaty System's yearly Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (ATCM) are the international forum for the administration and management of the region. Only 29 of the 54 parties to the agreements have the right to participate in decision-making at these meetings, though the other 25 are still allowed to attend. The decision-making participants are the Consultative Parties and, in addition to the 12 original signatories, include 17 countries that have demonstrated their interest in Antarctica by carrying out substantial scientific activity there.[15] The Antarctic Treaty also has Special Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings (SATCM), which are generally summoned to treat more important topics but are less frequents and Meetings of Experts.[16]
Parties[edit]


Map of research stations and territorial claims in Antarctica (2002)
As of 2019, there are 54 states party to the treaty,[2] 29 of which, including all 12 original signatories to the treaty, have consultative (voting) status.[17] Consultative members include the seven nations that claim portions of Antarctica as national territory. The 46 non-claimant nations either do not recognize the claims of others, or have not stated their positions. 40 parties to the Antarctic Treaty have also ratified the "Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty".[18]


  Parties with consulting status making a claim to Antarctic territory
  Parties with consulting status reserving the right to make a territorial claim
  Other parties with consulting status
  Parties without consulting status
  Non-party UN member states and observers

Country[2][17][19][20]
Signature
Ratification/
Accession
Consultative
status[17][20]
Notes
 Argentina (claim)*
Dec 1, 1959
Jun 23, 1961
Jun 23, 1961

 Australia (claim)
Dec 1, 1959
Jun 23, 1961
Jun 23, 1961

 Austria
No
Aug 25, 1987


 Belarus
No
Dec 27, 2006


 Belgium
Dec 1, 1959
Jul 26, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 Brazil
No
May 16, 1975
Sep 27, 1983

 Bulgaria
No
Sep 11, 1978
Jun 5, 1998

 Canada
No
May 4, 1988


 Chile (claim)*
Dec 1, 1959
Jun 23, 1961
Jun 23, 1961

 China
No
Jun 8, 1983
Oct 7, 1985

 Colombia
No
Jan 31, 1989


 Cuba
No
Aug 16, 1984


 Czech Republic
No
Jan 1, 1993
Apr 1, 2014
Succession from  Czechoslovakia, which acceded on June 14, 1962.[21]
 Denmark
No
May 20, 1965


 Ecuador
No
Sep 15, 1987
Nov 19, 1990

 Estonia
No
May 17, 2001


 Finland
No
May 15, 1984
Oct 20, 1989

 France (claim)
Dec 1, 1959
Sep 16, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 Germany (not formally claimed)
No
Feb 5, 1979
Mar 3, 1981
Ratified as  West Germany.
 East Germany also acceded on November 19, 1974, and received consultative status on October 5, 1987, prior to its reunification with West Germany.[20][22]
 Greece
No
Jan 8, 1987


 Guatemala
No
Jul 31, 1991


 Hungary
No
Jan 27, 1984


 Iceland
No
Oct 13, 2015[23]


 India
No
Aug 19, 1983
Sep 12, 1983

 Italy
No
Mar 18, 1981
Oct 5, 1987

 Japan (not formally claimed)
Dec 1, 1959
Aug 4, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 Kazakhstan
No
Jan 27, 2015


 Malaysia
No
Oct 31, 2011


 Monaco
No
May 31, 2008


 Mongolia
No
Mar 23, 2015


 Netherlands
No
Mar 30, 1967
Nov 19, 1990

 New Zealand (claim)
Dec 1, 1959
Nov 1, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 North Korea
No
Jan 21, 1987


 Norway (claim)
Dec 1, 1959
Aug 24, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 Pakistan
No
Mar 1, 2012


 Papua New Guinea
No
Mar 16, 1981

Succession from  Australia. Effective from their independence on September 16, 1975.[24]
 Peru
No
Apr 10, 1981
Oct 9, 1989

 Poland
No
Jun 8, 1961
Jul 29, 1977

 Portugal
No
Jan 29, 2010


 Romania
No
Sep 15, 1971


 Russia**
Dec 1, 1959
Nov 2, 1960
Jun 23, 1961
Ratified as the  Soviet Union.[25]
 Slovakia
No
January 1, 1993

Succession from  Czechoslovakia, which acceded on June 14, 1962.[26]
 Slovenia
No
April 22, 2019


 South Africa[27]
Dec 1, 1959
Jun 21, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 South Korea
No
Nov 28, 1986
Oct 9, 1989

 Spain
No
Mar 31, 1982
Sep 21, 1988

 Sweden
No
Apr 24, 1984
Sep 21, 1988

  Switzerland
No
Nov 15, 1990


 Turkey
No
Jan 24, 1996


 Ukraine
No
Oct 28, 1992
Jun 4, 2004

 United Kingdom (claim)*
Dec 1, 1959
May 31, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 United States**
Dec 1, 1959
Aug 18, 1960
Jun 23, 1961

 Uruguay
No
Jan 11, 1980
Oct 7, 1985

 Venezuela
No
May 24, 1999


* Claims overlap.
** Reserved the right to claim areas.
Antarctic Treaty Secretariat[edit]
Main article: Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
The Antarctic Treaty Secretariat was established in Buenos Aires, Argentina in September 2004 by the Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM). Jan Huber (Netherlands) served as the first Executive Secretary for five years until August 31, 2009. He was succeeded on September 1, 2009, by Manfred Reinke (Germany).
The tasks of the Antarctic Treaty Secretariat can be divided into the following areas:
• Supporting the annual Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meeting (ATCM) and the meeting of the Committee for Environmental Protection (CEP).
• Facilitating the exchange of information between the Parties required in the Treaty and the Environment Protocol.
• Collecting, storing, arranging and publishing the documents of the ATCM.
• Providing and disseminating public information about the Antarctic Treaty system and Antarctic activities.
Legal system[edit]
Antarctica currently has no permanent population and therefore it has no citizenship nor government. All personnel present on Antarctica at any time are citizens or nationals of some sovereignty outside Antarctica, as there is no Antarctic sovereignty. The majority of Antarctica is claimed by one or more countries, but most countries do not explicitly recognize those claims. The area on the mainland between 90 degrees west and 150 degrees west is the only major land on Earth not claimed by any country.[28] Until 2015 the interior of the Norwegian Sector, the extent of which had never been officially defined,[29] was considered to be unclaimed. That year, Norway formally laid claim to the area between its Queen Maud Land and the South Pole.[30]
Governments that are party to the Antarctic Treaty and its Protocol on Environmental Protection implement the articles of these agreements, and decisions taken under them, through national laws. These laws generally apply only to their own citizens, wherever they are in Antarctica, and serve to enforce the consensus decisions of the consultative parties: about which activities are acceptable, which areas require permits to enter, what processes of environmental impact assessment must precede activities, and so on. The Antarctic Treaty is often considered to represent an example of the common heritage of mankind principle.[31]
Australia[edit]

This 1959 cover commemorated the opening of the Wilkes post office in the Australian Antarctic Territory.

Since the designation of the Australian Antarctic Territory pre-dated the signing of the Antarctic Treaty, Australian laws that relate to Antarctica date from more than two decades before the Antarctic Treaty era. In terms of criminal law, the laws that apply to the Jervis Bay Territory (which follows the laws of the Australian Capital Territory) apply to the Australian Antarctic Territory. Key Australian legislation applying Antarctic Treaty System decisions include the Antarctic Treaty Act 1960, the Antarctic Treaty (Environment Protection) Act 1980 and the Antarctic Marine Living Resources Conservation Act 1981.[32]

United States[edit]

The law of the United States, including certain criminal offences by or against U.S. nationals, such as murder, may apply to areas not under jurisdiction of other countries. To this end, the United States now stations special deputy U.S. Marshals in Antarctica to provide a law enforcement presence.[33]

Some U.S. laws directly apply to Antarctica. For example, the Antarctic Conservation Act, Public Law 95-541, 16 U.S.C. § 2401 et seq., provides civil and criminal penalties for the following activities, unless authorized by regulation or statute:
• the taking of native Antarctic mammals or birds
• the introduction into Antarctica of non-indigenous plants and animals
• entry into specially protected or scientific areas
• the discharge or disposal of pollutants into Antarctica or Antarctic waters
• the importation into the U.S. of certain items from Antarctica
Violation of the Antarctic Conservation Act carries penalties of up to US$10,000 in fines and one year in prison. The Departments of the Treasury, Commerce, Transportation, and the Interior share enforcement responsibilities. The Act requires expeditions from the U.S. to Antarctica to notify, in advance, the Office of Oceans and Polar Affairs of the State Department, which reports such plans to other nations as required by the Antarctic Treaty. Further information is provided by the Office of Polar Programs of the National Science Foundation.
New Zealand[edit]

In 2006, the New Zealand police reported that jurisdictional issues prevented them issuing warrants for potential American witnesses who were reluctant to testify during the Christchurch Coroner's investigation into the death by poisoning of Australian astrophysicist Rodney Marks at the South Pole base in May 2000.[34][35] Dr. Marks died while wintering over at the United States' Amundsen–Scott South Pole Station located at the geographic South Pole. Prior to autopsy, the death was attributed to natural causes by the National Science Foundation and the contractor administering the base. However, an autopsy in New Zealand revealed that Dr. Marks died from methanol poisoning. The New Zealand Police launched an investigation. In 2006, frustrated by lack of progress, the Christchurch Coroner said that it was unlikely that Dr. Marks ingested the methanol knowingly, although there is no certainty that he died as the direct result of the act of another person. During media interviews, the police detective in charge of the investigation criticized the National Science Foundation and contractor Raytheon for failing to co-operate with the investigation.[36][37][38]

South Africa[edit]

South African law applies to all South African citizens in Antarctica, and they are subject to the jurisdiction of the magistrate's court in Cape Town.[39] In regard to violations of the Antarctic Treaty and related agreements, South Africa also asserts jurisdiction over South African residents and members of expeditions organised in South Africa.[40]
See also[edit]
• Antarctic and Southern Ocean Coalition (ASOC)
• Antarctic Protected Areas
• Antarctic Treaty issue
• Arctic Council
• Arctic sanctuary
• Crime in Antarctica
• Multilateral treaty
• National Antarctic Program
• Category: Outposts of Antarctica
• Research stations in Antarctica
• Svalbard Treaty

References[edit]

1 ^ Jump up to: 
a b "Antarctic Treaty" in The New Encyclopædia Britannica. Chicago: Encyclopædia Britannica Inc., 15th edn., 1992, Vol. 1, p. 439.
2 ^ Jump up to: 
a b c d e f "Antarctic Treaty". United States Department of State. April 22, 2019. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
3 ^ "ATS – Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty". http://www.ats.aq.
4 ^ "Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. United Nations. Retrieved March 28, 2018.
5 ^ Orrego Vicuna, Francisco (1986). "Antarctic Conflict and International Cooperation". Antarctic Treaty System: An Assessment: Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Beardmore South Field Camp, Antarctica, January 7-13, 1985. Washington: National Academy Press. p. 55. ISBN 9780309036405.
6 ^ Jump up to: 
a b Antarctic Treaty System : an Assessment : Proceedings of a Workshop Held at Beardmore South Field Camp, Antarctica, January 7-13, 1985. National Research Council (U.S.). Polar Research Board., National Research Council (U.S.). Commission on Physical Sciences, Mathematics, and Resources. Washington, D.C.: National Academy Press. 1986. ISBN 0-585-26158-X. OCLC 45730572.
7 ^ "FALKLAND ISLANDS DEPENDENCIES (HOPE BAY INCIDENT)". Parliament.
8 ^ Whiteman, Marjorie (1963). "Tripartite Naval Declaration". Digest of International Law, Volume 2. U.S. Department of State. p. 1238.
9 ^ "Contentious Cases | International Court of Justice". web.archive.org. September 9, 2015. Retrieved February 14, 2020.
10 ^ "Antarctic Treaty". U.S. Department of State. Retrieved February 13, 2019.
11 ^ "Convention on the Conservation of Antarctic Marine Living Resources – CCAMLR". http://www.ccamlr.org.
12 ^ "Exchange of Notes constituting an Agreement between the Governments of Australia, New Zealand and the United Kingdom of the Great Britain and Northern Ireland, and the Government of the French Republic, regarding Aerial Navigation in the Antarctic (Paris, 25 October 1938). ATS 13 of 1938." Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australian Treaty Series. Retrieved on 15 April 2017
13 ^ "Treaty between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic on cooperation in the maritime areas adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories (TAAF), Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Canberra, 24 November 2003) – ATS 6 of 2005”. Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australian Treaties Library. Retrieved on 18 April 2017.
14 ^ "Agreement on Cooperative Enforcement of Fisheries Laws between the Government of Australia and the Government of the French Republic in the Maritime Areas Adjacent to the French Southern and Antarctic Territories, Heard Island and the McDonald Islands (Paris, 8 January 2007) – ATS 1 of 2011”. Australasian Legal Information Institute, Australian Treaties Library. Retrieved on 18 April 2017.
15 ^ "Welcome to the Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty Website". http://www.ats.aq.
16 ^ "List of Meetings". http://www.ats.aq. Retrieved January 13, 2020.
17 ^ Jump up to: 
a b c "Secretariat of the Antarctic Treaty: Parties". Retrieved May 23, 2009.
18 ^ "Protocol on Environmental Protection to the Antarctic Treaty". United States Department of State. October 27, 2017. Retrieved June 30, 2019.
19 ^ "Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
20 ^ Jump up to: 
a b c "The Antarctic Treaty System: Introduction" (PDF). United States Department of State. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
21 ^ "Czech Republic: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 12, 2014.
22 ^ "Germany: Accession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
23 ^ Johnstone, Rachael Lorna; Jabour, Julia; Tamm, Sune (December 8, 2018). "Iceland's Accession to the Antarctic Treaty". The Yearbook of Polar Law Online. 9 (1): 262–281. doi:10.1163/22116427_009010012. ISSN 2211-6427.
24 ^ "Papua New Guinea: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
25 ^ "Russia: Ratification to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
26 ^ "Slovakia: Succession to Antarctic Treaty". United Nations Office for Disarmament Affairs. Retrieved March 13, 2014.
27 ^ "Antarctic Treaty System (ATS)". Department of International Relations and Cooperation. Retrieved October 5, 2010.
28 ^ Wright, Minturn, "The Ownership of Antarctica, Its Living and Mineral Resources", Journal of Law and the Environment 4 (1987).
29 ^ "Dronning Maud Land". Norwegian Polar Institute. Retrieved September 22, 2015.
30 ^ Rapp, Ole Magnus (September 21, 2015). "Norge utvider Dronning Maud Land helt frem til Sydpolen". Aftenposten (in Norwegian). Oslo, Norway. Retrieved September 22, 2015. “…formålet med anneksjonen var å legge under seg det landet som til nå ligger herreløst og som ingen andre enn nordmenn har kartlagt og gransket. Norske myndigheter har derfor ikke motsatt seg at noen tolker det norske kravet slik at det går helt opp til og inkluderer polpunktet.”
31 ^ Jennifer Frakes, The Common Heritage of Mankind Principle and the Deep Seabed, Outer Space, and Antarctica: Will Developed and Developing Nations Reach a Compromise? Wisconsin International Law Journal. 2003; 21:409
32 ^ "Australian Antarctic Division – Australian environmental law and guidelines". Archived from the original on May 19, 2009. Retrieved August 3, 2007.
33 ^ (USMS), U.S. Marshals Service. "U.S. Marshals Service". http://www.usmarshals.gov.
34 ^ Hotere, Andrea. "South Pole death file still open". Sunday Star Times, December 17, 2006. Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
35 ^ Deutsche Presse-Agentur. "Death of Australian astrophysicist an Antarctic whodunnit". Monstersandcritics.com, December 14, 2006. Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
36 ^ Chapman, Paul. "New Zealand Probes What May Be First South Pole Murder". The Daily Telegraph, (December 14, 2006), reprinted in The New York Sun (December 19, 2006). Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
37 ^ Booker, Jarrod. "South Pole scientist may have been poisoned". The New Zealand Herald, (December 14, 2006). Retrieved on December 19, 2006.
38 ^ "South Pole Death Mystery – Who killed Rodney Marks?" Sunday Star Times (January 21, 2007)
39 ^ Section 2 of the South African Citizens in Antarctica Act, No. 55 of 1962, as amended by the Environmental Laws Rationalisation Act, No. 51 of 1997.
40 ^ Antarctic Treaties Act, No. 60 of 1996.
External links[edit]

Wikisource has original text related to this article:

The Antarctic Treaty

• Antarctic Treaty Secretariat
• Full Text of the Antarctic Treaty
• Original facsimile of Antarctic Treaty
• Australian Antarctic Territory
• National Science Foundation – Office of Polar Programs
• List of all Antarctic Treaty Consultative Meetings
• An Antarctic Solution for the Koreas San Diego Union-Tribune, August 25, 2005 (Both South Korea and North Korea are members of the Antarctic Treaty)
• Emblem of the Antarctic Treaty
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Territories of Antarctica
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• GND: 4294843-5 LCCN: n80002932 NDL: 00577424 VIAF: 180630787 WorldCat Identities (via VIAF): 180630787
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