AMERICAN AND FOREIGN ECONOMIC ISOLATIONISM:

Knowing the truth about the Kennedy Assassination is understanding America today.

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AMERICAN AND FOREIGN ECONOMIC ISOLATIONISM:

Postby Bruce Patrick Brychek » Fri Aug 23, 2019 4:04 am

Thursday
08.22.2019
11:04 p.m.,
Chicago, Illinois time:

Dear JFK Murder Solved Forum Members and Readers:

American City, County, State, Federal, Foreign, Global, Inter-National, and National Economic Isolationism
is a Complex, Convoluted, In Depth, and Very Serious Subject Matter that I have been Analyzing, Reading,
Researching, Studying, and Writing about for decades.

Under a wide variety of Analyses, Approaches, Considerations, Names and/or Titles in Accounting, Common
Law, Constitutional Law, Economic, Financial, Historical, Governmental, Inter-National, Legal, National, Political,
Religious, Social, Theoretical, etc., Perspectives, I have been trying to connect and evaluate as many threads,
directly or tangentially connected, as is possible.

Economic Isolationism has both Pro and Con Advantages vs. Disadvantages from seemingly endless and growing
perspectives as our Global Economies of Scale Evolve and Grow by Geometric Proportions.

Banking, Crime, Drugs, Financing, Interest Rates, Intelligence, Legal, Military, Money, Politics, Religions, etc.,
all seem to have ONE AND ONLY ONE ULTIMATE CONNECTIVITY TO ME !

WAR - WAR - WAR !!!

Analyses of The Removals of JFK, MX, MLK, and RFK, and Afghanistan, Africa, Cambodia, Canada, China,
Drugs, the Federal Reserve, Great Britain, Iraq, Iran, Korea, Laos, NASA, Pakistan, Russia, South Korea,
South America, Space Exploration, Vietnam, etc., ALL CONNECT TO ACTUAL OR THREATENED WAR !

AND WAR IS THE GREATEST CONTOL OVER THE POPULATION, "We the People..."

ALL ROADS LEAD TO ROME !

I have provided Introductory to More Advanced Analyses of Economic, Historical, Governmental, Political,
Social, and Theoretical etc., Standards of knowledge to those who may wish to become involved in this
Analysis and Discussion, and hopefully contribute. This is not meant to be any panacea by me of this/these
Subject Matters in any way, shape, or form.

I am attempting to Induce Academic Discussion here at the Very Highest Levels.

As always, I strongly recommend that you first read, research, and study material completely yourself
about a Subject Matter, and then formulate your own Opinions and Theories.

Any additional analyses, interviews, investigations, readings, research, studies, thoughts, or writings
on any aspect of this Subject Matter ?

Bear in mind that we are trying to attract and educate a Whole New Generation of JFK Researchers
who may not be as well versed as you.

Comments ?

Respectfully,
BB.

Isolationism
FOREIGN POLICY
WRITTEN BY: The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica


The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica | Britannica.com





Isolationism, National policy of avoiding political or economic entanglements with other countries. Isolationism has been a recurrent theme in U.S. history. It was given expression in the Farewell Address of Pres. George Washington and in the early 19th-century Monroe Doctrine. The term is most often applied to the political atmosphere in the U.S. in the 1930s. The failure of Pres. Woodrow Wilson’s internationalism, liberal opposition to war as an instrument of policy, and the rigours of the Great Depression were among the reasons for Americans’ reluctance to concern themselves with the growth of fascism in Europe. The Johnson Act (1934) and the Neutrality acts (1935) effectively prevented economic or military aid to any country involved in the European disputes that were to escalate into World War II. U.S. isolationism encouraged the British in their policy of appeasement and contributed to French paralysis in the face of the growing threat posed by Nazi Germany. See also neutrality.

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Monroe Doctrine, U.S. foreign policy enunciated by President James Monroe in 1823 that the U.S. would not interf...

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Woodrow Wilson, 28th president of the United States.

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War, in the popular sense, a conflict among political groups involving hostilities of considerable duration and ...

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Neutrality, the legal status arising from the abstention of a state from all participation in a war between othe...

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20th-century international relations: The return of U.S. isolationism
The extreme isolationism that gripped the United States in the 1930s reinforced British appeasement and French paralysis. To Americans absorbed…
This article was most recently revised and updated by Jeannette L. Nolen, Assistant Editor.

Jeannette L. Nolen
Jeannette L. Nolen was an editor in social science at Encyclopaedia Britannica.

LEARN MORE in these related Britannica articles:

20th-century international relations: The return of U.S. isolationism The extreme isolationism that gripped the United States in the 1930s reinforced British appeasement and French paralysis. To Americans absorbed with their own distress, Hitler and Mussolini appeared as slightly ridiculous rabble-rousers on movie-house newsreels and certainly no concern of theirs. Moreover, the revisionist…

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 Isolationist


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Middle power
POLITICS
WRITTEN BY: Meltem Müftüler Baç


Meltem Müftüler Baç
Faculty Member, Sabancı University. Author of Turkey's Relations with a Changing Europe. Her contributions to SA...





See Article History
Middle power, in international relations, a state that holds a position in the international power spectrum that is in the “middle”—below that of a superpower, which wields vastly superior influence over all other states, or of a great power, but with sufficient ability to shape international events.

International relations | politics
International relations, the study of the relations of states with each other and with international organizatio...

Superpower | political science
Superpower, a state that possesses military or economic might, or both, and general influence vastly superior to...

The origins of the concept of the middle power as an analytical tool can be traced to the 16th century, in the writings of the Italian philosopher Giovanni Botero. Even though that concept may seem a relatively straightforward construct, there is disagreement among theorists about how middle powers should be defined and how they act in world politics. There are two ways to define a middle power: one is based on a state’s military strength, capabilities, and geostrategic position, while a second is based on a state’s leadership capabilities—in other words, that such states are perceived as being liberal, oriented toward democracy, and having legitimate concerns in international politics. The first conceptualization stems from a realist paradigm and the second from a pluralist paradigm.

Definition of LEGITIMATE
lawfully begotten; specifically : born in wedlock; having full filial rights and obligations by birth; being exa...

Definition of ANALYTICAL
of or relating to analysis or analytics; especially : separating something into component parts or constituent e...

Definition of DEMOCRACY
government by the people; especially : rule of the majority; a government in which the supreme power is vested i...

Giovanni Botero | Italian philosopher
Other articles where Giovanni Botero is discussed: Niccolò Machiavelli: Legacy: …example, was the Italian philos...

Definition of PARADIGM
example, pattern; especially : an outstandingly clear or typical example or archetype; an example of a conjugati...

Research suggests that middle powers are categorically different because of their reliance on diplomacy and the specific conditions under which they pursue foreign policy. Middle powers favour multilateral foreign policy and the formation of coalitions rather than unilateral decision making in foreign policy. The style of diplomacy used by middle powers has been labeled “niche diplomacy,” mainly because middle powers have to follow limited foreign-policy objectives as a result of their power capabilities, which are lower than those of great powers or superpowers. However, middle powers do not challenge the status quo in the international system; they are not revisionist or transformatist states.

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The role that middle powers play as legitimate brokers is emphasized in the pluralist paradigm of international-relations theory. Middle powers are important to the creation and maintenance of world order, and they favour the establishment of international institutions. In that sense, they act as stabilizers in the world system. According to conventional international-relations theory, hegemonic powers are responsible for the creation of international institutions, but the maintenance and survival of those institutions depend on the convergence of interests between other players; that is where the role of middle powers is enhanced. Middle powers often concern themselves with issues such as nuclear nonproliferation, international economic order, debt relief, banning of land mines—issues that do not directly involve the vital interests of the great powers. In such international problems, middle powers are able to set and influence international agendas, build successful coalitions, and challenge great-power hegemony in those issues. That role played by middle powers results partly from perceptions of their legitimate concerns on issues of human security. Middle powers can succeed in effecting change because of their diplomatic capability and their ability to project a credible position, which enables them to act as moral and intellectual leaders. Middle powers also typically possess highly institutionalized foreign services and are able to disseminate their ideas and foreign-policy objectives through the relatively wide network of diplomatic missions they maintain.

Definition of ENHANCED
heighten, increase; especially : to increase or improve in value, quality, desirability, or attractiveness; rais...

Definition of HEGEMONY
preponderant influence or authority over others : domination; the social, cultural, ideological, or economic inf...

Human security | political science
Human security, approach to national and international security that gives primacy to human beings and their com...

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of or relating to the intellect or its use; developed or chiefly guided by the intellect rather than by emotion ...

Definition of MORAL
of or relating to principles of right and wrong in behavior : ethical; expressing or teaching a conception of ri...

Definition of DISSEMINATE
to spread abroad as though sowing seed; to disperse throughout… See the full definition

Some theorists and researchers have also sought to differentiate between types of middle powers, mainly between traditional and emerging middle powers. An important trait for emerging middle powers (e.g., South Africa, Malaysia, and Turkey) is that they are also regional great players; however, middle powers that are able to influence world politics are most often the democratically oriented liberal states.

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to obtain the mathematical derivative of; to mark or show a difference in : constitute a contrasting element tha...


Meltem Müftüler Baç
Canada: Multilateral commitments …the concept of the “middle power”—that is, a state strong economically though perhaps not militarily. The idea in practice meant that Canada should concern itself primarily with economic policy in world affairs and with aid to developing countries. Canada decided to use its considerable knowledge of nuclear fission not…
superpower Superpower, a state that possesses military or economic might, or both, and general influence vastly superior to that of other states. Scholars generally agree on which state is the foremost or unique superpower—for instance, Britain during the Victorian era and the United States after World War II—but often disagree on…
State State, political organization of society, or the body politic, or, more narrowly, the institutions of government. The state is a form of human association distinguished from other social groups by its purpose, the establishment of order and security; its methods, the laws and their enforcement; its…

Isolationism
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Isolationism is a category of foreign policies institutionalized by leaders who assert that their nations' best interests are best served by keeping the affairs of other countries at a distance. One possible motivation for limiting international involvement is to avoid being drawn into dangerous and otherwise undesirable conflicts. There may also be a perceived benefit from avoiding international trade agreements or other mutual assistance pacts.[1]

Introduction:

Isolationism has been defined as:
A policy or doctrine of trying to isolate one's country from the affairs of other nations by declining to enter into alliances, foreign economic commitments, international agreements, and generally attempting to make one's economy entirely self-reliant; seeking to devote the entire efforts of one's country to its own advancement, both diplomatically and economically, while remaining in a state of peace by avoiding foreign entanglements and responsibilities.[2]
Isolationism by country[edit]

Albania:

Main article: People's Socialist Republic of Albania § Self-reliance

Bhutan:

Before 1999, Bhutan had banned television and the Internet in order to preserve its culture, environment, identity etc.[3] Eventually, Jigme Singye Wangchuck lifted the ban on television and the Internet. His son, Jigme Khesar Namgyel Wangchuck, was elected as Druk Gyalpo of Bhutan, which helped forge the Bhutanese democracy. Subsequently, Bhutan has transitioned from an absolute monarchy to a multi-party democracy. The development of Bhutanese democracy has been marked by the active encouragement and participation of reigning Bhutanese monarchs since the 1950s, beginning with legal reforms such as the abolition of slavery, and culminating in the enactment of Bhutan's Constitution [4]

Democracy

Slavery in Bhutan
Bhutan abolished slavery as part of modernization reforms at the behest of the Third Druk Gyalpo Jigme Dorji Wan...

China:

Main article: Haijin
After Zheng He's voyages in the 15th century, the foreign policy of the Ming dynasty in China became increasingly isolationist. The Hongwu Emperor was the first to propose the policy to ban all maritime shipping in 1390.[5] The Qing dynasty that came after the Ming dynasty often continued the Ming dynasty's isolationist policies. Wokou, which literally translates to "Japanese pirates" or "dwarf pirates", were pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan, and Korea, and were one of the key primary concerns, although the maritime ban was not without some control.

Wokou
There are two distinct eras of wokou piracy. The early wokou mostly set up camp on the outlying islands of the J...

Japan:

Main article: Sakoku

Sakoku
It was preceded by a period of largely unrestricted trade and widespread piracy. Japanese mariners and merchants...

From 1641 to 1853, the Tokugawa shogunate of Japan enforced a policy which it called kaikin. The policy prohibited foreign contact with most outside countries. The commonly held idea that Japan was entirely closed, however, is misleading. In fact, Japan maintained limited-scale trade and diplomatic relations with China, Korea and Ryukyu Islands, as well as the Dutch Republic as the only Western trading partner of Japan for much of the period[6][7].
The culture of Japan developed with limited influence from the outside world and had one of the longest stretches of peace in history. During this period, Japan developed thriving cities, castle towns, increasing commodification of agriculture and domestic trade,[8] wage labor, increasing literacy and concomitant print culture,[9] laying the groundwork for modernization even as the shogunate itself grew weak.[10]

Korea:

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Wikipedia:Verifiability
In Wikipedia, verifiability means other people using the encyclopedia can check that the information comes from ...

See also: Heungseon Daewongun
In 1863, Emperor Gojong took the throne of the Joseon Dynasty when he was a child. His father, Regent Heungseon Daewongun, ruled for him until Gojong reached adulthood. During the mid-1860s he was the main proponent of isolationism and the principal instrument of the persecution of both native and foreign Catholics.

Gojong of Korea
Gojong (Korean: 고종; Hanja: 高宗; RR: Gojong; MR: Kojong), the Emperor Gwangmu (Korean: 광무제; Hanja: 光武帝; RR: Gwangm...

Following the division of the peninsula after independence from Japan in 1945–48, Kim il-Sung inaugurated an isolationist totalitarian regime in the North, which has been continued by his son and grandson to the present day. North Korea is often referred to as "The Hermit Kingdom".

Paraguay:

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Just after independence was achieved, Paraguay was governed from 1814 by the dictator José Gaspar Rodríguez de Francia, who closed the country's borders and prohibited trade or any relation with the outside world until his death in 1840. The Spanish settlers who had arrived just before independence had to intermarry with either the old colonists or with the native Guarani, in order to create a single Paraguayan people.
Francia had a particular dislike of foreigners and any who came to Paraguay during his rule (which would have been very difficult) were not allowed to leave for the rest of their lives. An independent character, he hated European influences and the Catholic Church, turning church courtyards into artillery parks and confession boxes into border sentry posts, in an attempt to keep foreigners at bay.

United States:

Main article: United States non-interventionism § Isolationism Between the World Wars
While some scholars, such as Robert J. Art, believe that the United States has an isolationist history, other scholars dispute this by describing the United States as following a strategy of unilateralism or non-interventionism instead.[11][12] Robert Art makes his argument in A Grand Strategy for America (2003).[11] Books that have made the argument that the United States followed unilaterism instead of isolationism include Walter A. McDougall's Promised Land, Crusader State (1997), John Lewis Gaddis's Surprise, Security, and the American Experience (2004), and Bradley F. Podliska's Acting Alone (2010).[13] Both sides claim policy prescriptions from George Washington's Farewell Address as evidence for their argument.[11][12] Bear F. Braumoeller argues that even the best case for isolationism, the United States in the interwar period, has been widely misunderstood and that Americans proved willing to fight as soon as they believed a genuine threat existed.[14]

John Lewis Gaddis
Gaddis was born in Cotulla, Texas, in 1941.[5] He attended the University of Texas at Austin, receiving his BA i...

Bradley F. Podliska
Podliska was motivated to serve in the military by the stories of his grandfathers, both of whom served in World...

Events during and after the Revolution related to the treaty of alliance with France, as well as difficulties arising over the neutrality policy pursued during the French revolutionary wars and the Napoleonic wars, encouraged another perspective. A desire for separateness and unilateral freedom of action merged with national pride and a sense of continental safety to foster the policy of isolation. Although the United States maintained diplomatic relations and economic contacts abroad, it sought to restrict these as narrowly as possible in order to retain its independence. The Department of State continually rejected proposals for joint cooperation, a policy made explicit in the Monroe Doctrine's emphasis on unilateral action. Not until 1863 did an American delegate attend an international conference.[15]

Isolationism

Isolationism refers to America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars. Isolationists held the view that America's perspective on the world was different from that of European societies and that America could advance the cause of freedom and democracy by means other than war.
American isolationism did not mean disengagement from the world stage. Isolationists were not averse to the idea that the United States should be a world player and even further its territorial, ideological and economic interests, particularly in the Western Hemisphere.

The colonial period

The isolationist perspective dates to colonial days. The colonies were populated by many people who had fled from Europe, where there was religious persecution, economic privation and war. Their new homeland was looked upon as a place to make things better than the old ways. The sheer distance and rigors of the voyage from Europe tended to accentuate the remoteness of the New World from the Old. The roots of isolationism were well established years before independence, notwithstanding the alliance with France during the War for Independence.

Thomas Paine
The role of Thomas Paine in the history of the United States of America.

crystallized isolationist notions in his work Common Sense, which presents numerous arguments for shunning alliances. Paine's tract exerted so much political influence that the Continental Congress strove against striking an alliance with France and acquiesced only when it appeared probable that the war for independence could not be won without one.

George Washington in his Farewell Address placed the accent on isolationism in a manner that would be long remembered:

"The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities."

Washington was promulgating a perspective that was already venerable and accepted by many. The United States terminated its alliance with France, after which America's third president, Thomas Jefferson, admonished in his inaugural address, "peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none."

Thomas Jefferson
The role of Thomas Jefferson in the history of the United States of America.

The 19th century
The United States remained politically isolated all through the 19th century and the beginning of the 20th, an unusual feat in western history. Historians have attributed the fact to a geographical position at once separate and far removed from Europe.

During the 1800s, the United States spanned North America and commenced to piece together an empire in the Caribbean and the Pacific — without departing from the traditional perspective. It fought the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American War without joining alliances or fighting in Europe.

Pacific Ocean
The role of Pacific Ocean in the history of the United States of America.

Results of the Spanish-American War
The role of Results of the Spanish-American War in the history of the United States of America.

War of 1812
The role of War of 1812 in the history of the United States of America.

The isolationist point of view was still viable in 1823 when President James Monroe gave voice to what would later be termed the Monroe Doctrine, "In the wars of the European powers, in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken part, nor does it comport with our policy, so to do."

James Monroe
The role of James Monroe in the history of the United States of America.

Nevertheless, pressures were mounting abroad that would undercut and demolish that policy near the mid-20th century. The advent of German and Japanese expansionism would threaten and later nearly snuff out the contented aloofness enjoyed by the United States. The United States' occupation of the Philippines during the Spanish-American War thrust U.S. interests into the far western Pacific Ocean — Imperial Japan's sphere of interest. Such improved transportation and communication as steamships, undersea cable, and radio linked the two continents. The growth of shipping and foreign trade slowly enhanced America's world role.
There also were basic changes at home. The historic ascendancy of urban-based business, industry, and finance, and the sidelining of rural and small-town America — the bastion of isolationism — contributed to its eventual demise.
World War I
Germany's unfettered submarine warfare against American ships during World War I provoked the U.S. into abandoning the neutrality it had upheld for so many years. The country's resultant participation in World War I against the Central Powers marked its first major departure from isolationist policy. When the war ended, however, the United States was quick to leave behind its European commitment. Regardless of President Woodrow Wilson's efforts, the Senate repudiated the Treaty of Versailles that ended the war, and the United States failed to become a member of the League of Nations.

Covenant of the League of Nations
The role of Covenant of the League of Nations in the history of the United States of America.

Wilson`s Search for Peace
The role of Wilson`s Search for Peace in the history of the United States of America.

Neutral Rights and Submarine Warfare
The role of Neutral Rights and Submarine Warfare in the history of the United States of America.

Indeed, isolationism would persist for a few more decades. During the 1920s, American foreign affairs took a back seat. In addition, America tended to insulate itself in terms of trade. Tariffs were imposed on foreign goods to shield U.S. manufacturers.
America turned its back on Europe by restricting the number of immigrants permitted into the country. Until World War I, millions of people, mostly from Europe, had come to America to seek their fortune and perhaps flee poverty and persecution. Britons and Irishmen, Germans and Jews constituted the biggest groups. In 1921 the relatively liberal policy ended and quotas were introduced. By 1929 only 150,000 immigrants per year were allowed in.

During the 1920s and 1930s, the preponderance of Americans remained opposed to enmeshment in Europe's alliances and wars. Isolationism was solid in hinterland and small-town America in the Midwest and Great Plains states, and among Republicans. It claimed numerous sympathizers among Irish- and German-Americans. William Jennings Bryan of Nebraska, Robert M. La Follette of Wisconsin, and George W. Norris of Nebraska were among western agrarian progressives who argued fervently against involvement. Assuming an us-versus-them stance, they castigated various eastern, urban elites for their engagement in European affairs.

Robert M. La Follette: Progressive Leader
The role of Robert M. La Follette: Progressive Leader in the history of the United States of America.

World War II
The year 1940 signaled a final turning point for isolationism. German military successes in Europe and the Battle of Britain prompted nationwide American rethinking about its posture toward the war. If Germany and Italy established hegemony in Europe and Africa, and Japan swept East Asia, many believed that the Western Hemisphere might be next. Even if America managed to repel invasions, its way of life might wither if it were forced to become a garrison state. By the autumn of 1940, many Americans believed it was necessary to help defeat the Axis — even if it meant open hostilities.

Many others still backed the noninterventionist America First Committee in 1940 and 1941, but isolationists failed to derail the Roosevelt administration's plans to aid targets of Axis aggression with means short of war. Most Americans opposed any actual declaration of war on the Axis countries, but everything abruptly changed when Japan naval forces sneak-attacked Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941. Germany and Italy declared war on the United States four days later. America galvanized itself for full-blown war against the Axis powers.

Lend-Lease
The role of Lend-Lease in the history of the United States of America.

The demise of isolationism
The isolationist point of view did not completely disappear from American discourse, but never again did it figure prominently in American policies and affairs. Countervailing tendencies that would outlast the war were at work. During the war, the Roosevelt administration and other leaders inspired Americans to favor the establishment of the United Nations (1945), and following the war, the threat embodied by the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin dampened any comeback of isolationism.

United Nations Secretariat Building
The role of United Nations Secretariat Building in the history of the United States of America.

The postwar world environment, in which the United States played a leading role, would change with the triumph of urban industry and finance, expanded education and information systems, advanced military technology, and leadership by internationalists. A few leaders would rise to speak of a return to America's traditional policies of nonintervention, but in reality, traditional American isolationism was obsolete.

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The Evolution of American Isolationism

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Updated June 19, 2019
“Isolationism” is a government policy or doctrine of taking no role in the affairs of other nations. A government’s policy of isolationism, which that government may or may not officially acknowledge, is characterized by a reluctance or refusal to enter into treaties, alliances, trade commitments, or other international agreements.

Supporters of isolationism, known as “isolationists,” argue that it allows the nation to devote all of its resources and efforts to its own advancement by remaining at peace and avoiding binding responsibilities to other nations.

American Isolationism
While it has been practiced to some degree in U.S. foreign policy since before the War for Independence, isolationism in the United States has never been about a total avoidance of the rest of the world. Only a handful of American isolationists advocated the complete removal of the nation from the world stage. Instead, most American isolationists have pushed for the avoidance of the nation’s involvement in what Thomas Jefferson called “entangling alliances.” Instead, U.S. isolationists have held that America could and should use its wide-ranging influence and economic strength to encourage the ideals of freedom and democracy in other nations by means of negotiation rather than warfare.

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Isolationism refers to America's longstanding reluctance to become involved in European alliances and wars. Isolationists held the view that America's perspective on the world was different from that of European societies and that America could advance the cause of freedom and democracy by means other than war.

American Isolationism Born in the Colonial Period
Isolationist feelings in America dates back to the colonial period. The last thing many American colonists wanted was any continued involvement with the European governments that had denied them religious and economic freedom and kept them enmeshed in wars. Indeed, they took comfort in the fact that they were now effectively “isolated” from Europe by the vastness of the Atlantic Ocean.

Overview of the Early American Colonial Regions
The three colonial regions of early America, the New England, Middle, and Southern Colonies, had distinctly vari...

Despite an eventual alliance with France during the War for Independence, the basis of American isolationism can is found in Thomas Paine’s famed paper Common Sense, published in 1776. Paine’s impassioned arguments against foreign alliances drove the delegates to the Continental Congress to oppose the alliance with France until it became obvious that the revolution would be lost without it.

Milestones: 1776–1783 - Office of the Historian
history.state.gov 3.0 shell

Twenty years and an independent nation later, President George Washington memorably spelled out the intent of American isolationism in his Farewell Address:

Avalon Project - Washington's Farewell Address 1796

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“The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign nations, is in extending our commercial relations, to have with them as little political connection as possible. Europe has a set of primary interests, which to us have none, or a very remote relation. Hence she must be engaged in frequent controversies the causes of which are essentially foreign to our concerns. Hence, therefore, it must be unwise in us to implicate ourselves, by artificial ties, in the ordinary vicissitudes of her politics, or the ordinary combinations and collisions of her friendships or enmities.”

Washington’s opinions of isolationism were widely accepted. As a result of his Neutrality Proclamation of 1793, the U.S. dissolved its alliance with France. And in 1801, the nation’s third president, Thomas Jefferson, in his inaugural address, summed up American isolationism as a doctrine of "peace, commerce, and honest friendship with all nations, entangling alliances with none…”

The 19th Century: The Decline of US Isolationism
Through the first half of the 19th century, America managed to maintain its political isolation despite its rapid industrial and economic growth and status as a world power. Historians again suggest that the nation’s geographical isolation from Europe continued to allow the U.S. to avoid the “entangling alliances” feared by the Founding Fathers.

Without abandoning its policy of limited isolationism, the United States expanded its own borders from coast-to-coast and began creating territorial empires in the Pacific and the Caribbean during the 1800s. Without forming binding alliances with Europe or any of the nations involved, the U.S. fought three wars: the War of 1812, the Mexican War, and the Spanish-American War.

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In 1823, the Monroe Doctrine boldly declared that the United States would consider the colonization of any independent nation in North or South America by a European nation to be an act of war. In delivering the historic decree, President James Monroe voiced the isolationist view, stating, “In the wars of the European powers, in matters relating to themselves, we have never taken part, nor does it comport with our policy, so to do.”

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But by the mid-1800s, a combination of world events began to test the resolve of American isolationists:

The expansion of the German and Japanese military industrial empires that would eventually immerse the United States in two world wars had begun.
Though short-lived, the occupation of the Philippines by the United States during the Spanish-American war had inserted American interests into the Western Pacific islands — an area generally considered to be part of Japan’s sphere of influence.
Steamships, undersea communications cables, and radio enhanced America’s stature in world trade, but at the same time, brought her closer to her potential enemies.

Within the United States itself, as industrialized mega-cities grew, small-town rural America — long the source of isolationist feelings — shrank.

The 20th Century: The End of US Isolationism
World War I (1914 to 1919)

Though actual battle never touched her shores, America’s participation in World War I marked the nation’s first departure from its historic isolationist policy.

During the conflict, the United States entered into binding alliances with the United Kingdom, France, Russia, Italy, Belgium, and Serbia to oppose the Central Powers of Austria-Hungary, Germany, Bulgaria, and the Ottoman Empire.

However, after the war, the United States returned to its isolationist roots by immediately ending all of its war-related European commitments. Against the recommendation of President Woodrow Wilson, the U.S. Senate rejected the war-ending Treaty of Versailles, because it would have required the U.S. to join the League of Nations.

As America struggled through the Great Depression from 1929 to 1941, the nation’s foreign affairs took a back seat to economic survival. To protect U.S. manufacturers from foreign competition, the government imposed high tariffs on imported goods.

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World War I also brought an end to America’s historically open attitude toward immigration. Between the pre-war years of 1900 and 1920, the nation had admitted over 14.5 million immigrants. After the passage of the Immigration Act of 1917, fewer than 150,000 new immigrants had been allowed to enter the U.S. by 1929. The law restricted the immigration of “undesirables” from other countries, including “idiots, imbeciles, epileptics, alcoholics, poor, criminals, beggars, any person suffering attacks of insanity…”

World War II (1939 to 1945)

While avoiding the conflict until 1941, World War II marked a turning point for American isolationism. As Germany and Italy swept through Europe and North Africa, and Japan began taking over Eastern Asia, many Americans started to fear that the Axis powers might invade the Western Hemisphere next. By the end of 1940, American public opinion had started to shift in favor of using U.S. military forces to help defeat the Axis.

Still, nearly one million Americans supported the America First Committee, organized in 1940 to oppose the nation’s involvement in the war. Despite pressure from isolationists, President Franklin D. Roosevelt proceeded with his administration’s plans to assist the nations targeted by the Axis in ways not requiring direct military intervention.

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Even in the face of Axis successes, a majority of Americans continued to oppose actual U.S. military intervention. That all changed on the morning of December 7, 1941, when naval forces of Japan launched a sneak attack on the U.S. naval base at Pearl Harbor, Hawaii. On December 8, 1941, America declared war on Japan. Two days later, the America First Committee disbanded.

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After World War II, the United States helped establish and became a charter member of the United Nations in October 1945. At the same time, the emerging threat posed by Russia under Joseph Stalin and the specter of communism that would soon result in the Cold War effectively lowered the curtain on the golden age of American isolationism.

War on Terror: A Rebirth of Isolationism?
While the terrorist attacks of Sept 11, 2001, initially spawned a spirit of nationalism unseen in America since World War II, the ensuing War on Terror may have resulted in the return of American isolationism.

Wars in Afghanistan and Iraq claimed thousands of American lives. At home, Americans fretted through a slow and fragile recovery from a Great Recession many economists compared to the Great Depression of 1929. Suffering from war abroad and a failing economy at home, America found itself in a situation very much like that of the late 1940s when isolationist feelings prevailed.

Now as the threat of another war in Syria looms, a growing number of Americans, including some policymakers, are questioning the wisdom of further U.S. involvement.

“We are not the world’s policeman, nor its judge and jury,” stated U.S. Rep. Alan Grayson (D-Florida) joining a bipartisan group of lawmakers arguing against U.S. military intervention in Syria. “Our own needs in America are great, and they come first.”

In his first major speech after winning the 2016 presidential election, President-Elect Donald Trump expressed the isolationist ideology that became one of his campaign slogans — “America first.”

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“There is no global anthem, no global currency, no certificate of global citizenship,” Mr. Trump said on December 1, 2016. “We pledge allegiance to one flag, and that flag is the American flag. From now on, it's going to be America first."

In their words, Rep. Grayson, a progressive Democrat, and President-Elect Trump, a conservative Republican, may have announced the rebirth of American isolationism.

US economic isolation hurts the global economy – and the US itself
"America first!" was the slogan US President Donald Trump used to announce a turnaround in American foreign and trade policy. How would looming economic isolation impact the American economy and the rest of the world? New simulation results show: protectionism in international trade is a loss-making venture.
Dr. Thieß Petersen

Since Donald Trump was elected, there has been a growing risk of US trade policy increasingly relying on protectionist measures. The aim of this isolationist policy is to secure jobs and income at home. In reality, however, higher import duties and other import obstacles would mean that weakening of international trade triggered by the US would incur a loss of income worldwide, especially in the US.
In the worst-case scenario for the United States, annual US economic output would drop by 2.3 percent in the long term. In today's terms, this would result in a loss of gross domestic product (GDP) to the tune of USD 415 billion. This is the key finding of a recent study by the ifo Institute on our behalf.
Revamp of the North American Free Trade Agreement would be harmful to the US
Even the reintroduction of tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers, for example technical requirements, documentation obligations, etc. in the North American free trade zone, which includes the United States, Canada and Mexico, would damage the American economy. In the long term, real per capita income in the US would fall by around 0.2 per cent, or USD 125. In Canada alone, the annual loss of income would be just over 1.5 per cent, or around USD 730 per inhabitant. Related losses in annual GDP would be about USD 26 billion in Canada and USD 40 billion in the US.
Many other countries could, however, benefit from a decline in trade between the US, Canada and Mexico. Germany's annual exports to the US would increase by around 3.2 per cent or USD 4.4 billion according to calculations. At the same time, long-term per capita income in Germany would grow by almost 0.03 per cent or USD 12. This would correspond to GDP growth of USD 1 billion.
Protectionist trade policy in the US would also reduce US exports
Greater economic damage would occur if the US were to apply a protectionist trade policy towards all trading partners. If the US were to increase both tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers for imports from the rest of the world by 20 per cent, US exports to most individual countries would in turn fall by 40 to 50 per cent, due to the decrease in US industry's competitiveness accompanying tariffs and barriers.
This would lead to a decline in the long-term annual per capita income of 1.4 per cent or about USD 780 in the United States. American GDP would drop by about USD 250 billion. In Germany, the corresponding loss in annual per capita income would be around 0.7 percent or USD 275. This would amount to a reduction in GDP of USD 22 billion.
Countermeasures by other countries would lead to high losses
If the other countries were to react to US protectionism with the same measures against the US economy, income losses would continue to rise. Assuming that all other countries were also to increase their tariffs and non-tariff trade barriers against US products by 20 per cent, this would significantly restrict trade between the United States and the rest of the world. The drop in US imports – depending on the country – is calculated as being 50 to 60 per cent. US exports to other countries would actually fall by 70 per cent or more.
The result would be substantial losses in income: in the US, real per capita annual income would fall by 2.3 per cent or USD 1,300 in the long term, and in Canada by as much as 3.85 per cent or around USD 1,800. For Germany, a loss of in-come of 0.4 per cent or about USD 160 per inhabitant would be expected. The long-term annual GDP losses in Germany would reach USD 13 billion, in Canada nearly USD 65 billion and in the US around USD 415 billion.

For our chairman and CEO Aart De Geus, these results are a clear argument against any form of protectionism:

"Economic isolation involves losses for all trading partners. What we need is a fair trade policy that allows the free exchange of goods and services, and works for the benefit of producers and consumers all over the world."
Aart De Geus, chairman and CEO of the Bertelsmann Stiftung

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It should be noted that in all of these results, the simulation model used does not take into account any dynamic effects and the parameters used are conservative in nature. Therefore, these results represent the lower limit of the long-term effects of a protectionist US trade policy on income and production.
<img class="image__fallback" alt="" height="@@400" src="/fileadmin/files/_processed_/5/7/csm_NW_GED_Focus_Paper_US_Protectionism_b1e0dadee1.png" width="212" height="295" />
FOCUS PAPER
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Global Impact of a Protectionist U.S. Trade Policy
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